Is an innovation a change over something that’s been invented?
Innovation has nothing to do with marketing directly. Nor does it have anything to do with an invention directly.
You can innovate in any field or anything withhout an invention in sight (see Starbucks below). Simply put, when you innovate, you introduce an improvement in something. The innovation can be tiny or huge. It can be simple or complex.
Starbucks has brougth decent coffee to masses of people. That’s a simple innovation but on a large scale.
Apple introduced the iPod which is a portable digital media player … plays MP3 audio files. MP3 is an open standard audio file format. So Apple did not "invent" anything but they innovate by packaging existing technology in a way that allowed people to enjoy their MP3s on the move.
That is complex innovation compared to Starbucks.
Many people say technologically the iPod is far inferior to other devices that do the same thing … but you can see that their innovation (ie marketing a portable device before anyone else) has given them the #1 place in the market.
Now, inventions are when you find a totally new way doing somethig that has bever been done before. Or when you create a new tool or technology that does something better than it is currently being done with current tools or technologies.
Flat screens (LCDs and Plasmas) for example are replacing the old tube technology for TVs and computer monitors. These falt screens do somethng that was being done already so they did not provide a new method/way but they did provide new technology for electronic information display.
By the way you cannot get a patent for anything new just because it is new. It must provide some sort of benefit. ANd falt screens of course do (lighter, thinner, cheaoer to manufacture, take less energy, have much less radiation, etc).
Genrally you can get a patent for an invention but not for an innovation. In fact there is no such thing as an "Innovation" patent. You can only get a patent for an "invention". You can get a patent either for a new method/way or a new tool/technology.
So Apple or Starbucks could not get a patent for their innovative products (though Apple might have some patents for something inside their device but not for the iPod as a whole).
I hope this helps.